30.11.23 ХХVI A. Krymskyi Annual Memorial Conference on Oriental Studies
We kindly invite you to take part in the International scientific conference “ХХVI A. Krymskyi Annual Memorial Conference on Oriental Studies”.
The conference will be held on November 30, 2023.
04.05.2022 The Third International Round Table “Pre-Islamic Near East: History, Religion, Culture”.
We invite you to take part in the Third International Scientific Round Table “Pre-Islamic Near East: History, Religion, Culture”, which will be held on May 04, 2022.
On September 27, 1822, the French Orientalist Jean-François Champollion at a meeting of the Academy of Inscriptions in Paris announced his well-known “Letter to Mr. Docier on the alphabet of phonetic hieroglyphs” (Lettre à Mr. Dacier relative à l’alphabet des hiéroglyphes phonétiques) about his discovery of a method for decryption of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic writing. This event marked the appearance of a new discipline in Oriental studies – Egyptology. The Organizing Committee decided to time this year`s round table to the 200th Anniversary of Egyptology.
Historians, archaeologists, specialists in the history of religion, and philologists specializing in the study of ancient cultures of the Near East region are invited to participate in the meeting.
Working languages: Ukrainian, English.
Report schedule: up to 20 minutes.
Organizational fee is not provided.
The round table is planned to be held in a mixed format (face-to-face participation and zoom-conference mode).
Please confirm your participation in the meeting and send the topic and abstracts of the report by March 20, 2022 to the following e-mail addresses: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org
Chairman of Organizing Committee: Mykola Tarasenko.
Secretary of Organizing Committee: Hanna Vertiienko.
It is planned to publish Abstracts and a Collection of Materials.
Requirements for the application and abstracts:
Title of the report, surname and name of the authors, e-mail address, academic degree, institution, city where the institution is located, country, text of abstracts (approx. 2000 characters with spaces) in Ukrainian and English languages).
Usenko IMAGES OF ANCIENT EGYPT IN MODERN MASS CULTURE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE FILM “GODS OF EGYPT”)
IMAGES OF ANCIENT EGYPT IN MODERN MASS CULTURE (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE FILM “GODS OF EGYPT”)
I. V. Usenko
Student V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University 4, Svobody Sq., Kharkiv, 61022, Ukraine email@example.com
This article with the help of semiotic and hermeneutic methods highlights the representation of Ancient Egypt images in mass modern culture on the example of the film “Gods of Egypt”. Nowadays the interest in ancient Egyptian art culture and history is presented not only in scientific perspective but also in mass culture. Each of these works includes a unique vision and interpretation of myths and history created by the author. However not all of them include representation of history and culture of Egypt that may be called authentic. This work with the help of analysis depicts the way of interpretation of mythological material in the film, namely the interpretation of Osiris myth, myths about the Solar vessel and the afterlife. The images of Egyptian gods are examined and compared with their representation in the film, particularly it is made with the help of colour symbolism in Egyptian culture. It also turns out, that film as a product of modern mass media includes techniques, that belong to mass culture such as citation technique (depiction of Sauron’s tower – Barad Dur from the thrilogy by J. R. R. Tolkien, filmed by the director Peter Jackson), standardization, usage of basic plots (conflict between good and evil). Mass culture is a phenomenon which is based on the generalization and availability, but in many cases it leads to simplification that violates the logic of authentic meanings. Therefore, despite the fact that “Gods of Egypt” include the reflection of Egyptian culture and mythology, the analysis showed that the film lost its authenticity and logic of perception (binary that is represented in the ancient Egyptian culture by terms “Isfet and Maat”) due to standardization. Also the accent in the film was made on the conflict between good and evil, presented by figures of Seth and Horus.
Keywords: mass modern culture, “The Gods of Egypt”, Osirian Myth, Osiris, Egyptian culture, Egyptian mythology
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):181-187
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Karlova K. F. (2018), “Set – Vladyka Isefet: k voprosu ob interpretatsii epiteta”, Vestnik Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo oblastnogo universiteta. Seriya: Istoriya I politicheskiye nauki, No. 3. pp. 40–7. (In Russian).
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Lavrentyeva N. V. (2012), Mir ushedshikh. Duat: obraz inogo mira v iskusstve Egipta (Drevneye i Sredneye Tsarstva), Russkiy fond sodeystviya obrazovaniyu i nauke, Moscow. (In Russian).
Lipinskaya Y. and Martsinyak M. (1983), Mifologiya Drevnego Egipta, translated by E. Gessen, Iskusstvo, Moscow. (In Russian).
Plutarkh (1996), Isida i Osiris, translated by N. Trukhina, UTSIMM-PRESS, Kiev. (In Russian).
Rak. I. V. (2004), Egipetskaya mifologiya, Knizhnyy klub, Kharkov. (In Russian).
Zhdanov V. V. (2006), Evolyutsiya kategorii Maat v drevneyegipetskoy mysli, Sovremennyye tetrad, Moscow. (In Russian).
Assmann J. (2005), Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt, translated by D. Lorton, Cornell University Press, Ithaca and London.
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Smith M. (2017), Following Osiris, Oxford University Press, Oxford. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2753906700002205
Tarasenko SERHIY DONICH (1900–1958): THE FATE OF EGYPTOLOGIST IN SOVIET UKRAINE
SERHIY DONICH (1900–1958): THE FATE OF EGYPTOLOGIST IN SOVIET UKRAINE
M. O. Tarasenko
DSc (History) A. Yu. Krymskyi Institute of Oriental Studies, NAS of Ukraine 4, Hrushevskoho Str., Kyiv, 01001, Ukraine firstname.lastname@example.org
In 2020, it was 120 years anniversary of Serhiy Donich, the only Egyptologist in Soviet Ukraine in the second quarter of the 20th century. He was born in 1900 at Dzegam of Yelisavetgrad province (Tavluz district, Azerbaijan). In 1921 he entered the University of Kamyanets-Podilsky and at the same time worked at the astronomical Observatory. In the summer of 1923 he moved to Odessa. Here, working at the Odessa University Observatory, he began to study Oriental and African languages, and Egyptology became the main subject of his interest. The second half of the 1920s and 1930s was the time of his most productive research activity. At this time he established contacts with other Soviet and Western Egyptologists. In 1929 he became a member of the Egyptological Section at Leningrad University and underwent an internship at the State Hermitage Museum. From 1927 to 1945 Donich worked as the head of the Department of “Ancient Egypt” at the Odessa Historical and Archaeological Museum (Odessa Archaeological Museum now). During this time he processed the Egyptian collection, made its inventory and created a card catalog of identifications of more than 600 artifacts, created the new exhibitions, conducted tours, participated in archaeological expeditions, published articles in three languages in Odessa, Moscow, and Leningrad. With the beginning of World War II, Donich was drafted to the Red Army in 1941, but was taken prisoner soon, escaped, and returned to Odessa, where he returned to work at the museum. In 1945, S. Donich was arrested and unjustifiably sentenced to 10 years for allegedly assisting the Romanian administration in removing cultural property from the Historical and Archaeological Museum. His criminal case was soon reconsidered, and in 1946 he was released under an amnesty. Later, the scholar worked in a number of Odessa libraries, and in the last years of his life he returned to work at the Observatory. After a long break, in 1958 his Egyptological article was published in Moscow, which gave hope for the resumption of research activity, but at that time the scholar was already terminally ill. He died on December 26, 1958. Serhiy Donich was rehabilitated in 1997.
Keywords: Serhiy V. Donich, Odessa, Egyptology, Oriental Studies, Odessa Archaeological Museum, Soviet Period
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):147-180
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Alenich A. A. and Donich S. V. (1923), “Mayskiye Akvaridy v 1921 g.”, Mirovedeniye. Izvestiya russkogo obshchestva lyubiteley mirovedeniya, T. XII, April, no. 1 (44), pp. 44–6. (In Russian).
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Balasohlo V. B. and Donich S. V. (1937), “Sposterezhennya sonyachnykh plyam na heliohrafi Odes’koyi observatoriyi”, Trudy Odes’koho Derzhavnoho Universytetu. Zbirnyk astronomichnoyi Observatoriyi, T. II, Odesa, pp. 63–8. (In Ukrainian).
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Spartak ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DENOTATIONS OF OBELISKS
ANCIENT EGYPTIAN DENOTATIONS OF OBELISKS
A. A. Spartak
PhD (History) Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts, 17, Rabkorovskaya Str., Minsk, 220008, Belarus email@example.com
The article is devoted to the study of the ancient Egyptian denotations of obelisks. In Egyptian language, obelisks were denoted by the word txn. The etymology of this word is unknown. Apparently, the Egyptian word txn was associated with the physical characteristic of the named object (in the categories of the worldview of modern people) – with its luminosity (in the categories of the worldview of the ancient Egyptians). In different historical periods of the development of the ancient Egyptian state and depending on the stage of development of the Egyptian language, the obelisks had different designations. In the Amarna period, the ancient Egyptians used to denotation the obelisk the word bnbn. In all probability, it was associated with the religious reform of Akhenaten and an attempt to limit the influence of the Theban priesthood, distance from the Theban cult of Amun. Since obelisks were an ancient attribute of the institution of royal power, confirmation of the direct origin of the king from the sun god, Akhenaten had to use them in his ritual service. However, it was unacceptable to emphasize the connection of the obelisk with Amun, and the ancient Egyptians used the word bnbn to designate it. Since the ancient Egyptian perceived these objects as identical – as symbols of light and creation, the connection between them was obvious. Since the New Kingdom period, the hieroglyph “obelisk” has been used as a consonant component (m + n) of the words mnw (“monument”), Imn (“Amun”), jmn (“hide”). Here, according to the author, it is more correct to resort to the interpretation of such an innovation through the changed worldview categories of the Egyptians of the New Kingdom, and, accordingly, the linguistic categories. The semantic field of the word “obelisk” in this period contained the words mnw – “monument” and Imn – “Amun”, in both concepts the same hieroglyph mn was used which is a consonant component. The words formed from this hieroglyph expressed the idea of something both divine and firmly established, founded, fortified: for example, the verbal form mn – “to be strong, firm, strong, stay, be established”. The obelisk had similar properties. Therefore, the characterization of mn should be understood as a characteristic of both the monuments themselves, and those periods of the history of Ancient Egypt when the obelisks were erected – periods of the firmly established world order of Maat, prosperity, stability.
Keywords: Ancient Egypt, obelisk, institution of royal power, Egyptian language
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):139-146
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Smirnou SYNCRETISM IN THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF ANCIENT PALMYRA IN THE 3rd CENTURY СE
SYNCRETISM IN THE RELIGIOUS LIFE OF ANCIENT PALMYRA IN THE 3rd CENTURY СE
S. M. Smirnou
PhD Student Belarusian State University 6, Krasnoarmeyskaya Str., Minsk, 220030, Belarus firstname.lastname@example.org
A study of religious syncretism in the Roman Empire in the third century CE allows us to understand new trends in the religious life of modern society. Such a study can help elucidate the general nature and essence of syncretism in the non-material culture of ancient civilizations. Manifestations of religious syncretism in the spiritual life of Roman Palmyra are noticeable in the pantheon of Palmyra gods. The main feature of the Palmyra pantheon is its syncretic nature. In this pantheon the influence of Arab, Phoenician, Babylonian and Hellenistic beliefs is noticeable. Residents of Palmyra worshiped the gods Baal-Hamon, Shadraffa-Apollo, Elqoner-Poseidon, Nergal, Tammuz, Ishtar, Atargatis, Persian Anahita and others. Among the Palmyrian gods stood out two triads of major deities. The first triad consisted of Bel, Yargibol, and Aglibol. The second triad consisted of the gods Baal-Shamin, Malakbel and Aglibol. Modern researchers have a problem explaining this fact. A possible reason for this situation in the Palmyrian religion is the complication and development of the images of the local gods – Bol-Bel and Yargibol. The images and cults of the supreme Palmyrian gods were syncretic. Evidence of local sacred art shows that Bel and Baal-Shamin were identified with the Greek Zeus. The solar gods Yargibol and Malakbel were associated with the Greek Helios and the Iranian Mithras. The Palmyrian goddess Allat, who was identified with the Greek Athena, had a syncretic image. The original feature of the religion of Palmyra was the worship of the so-called anonymous god. This cult may have been influenced by the beliefs of early Christianity or Judaism. Along with this archaeological material indicates the spread of the syncretic cult of the god Mithras in this region. On this basis, it can be seen that the Roman Palmyra in the 3rd century CE was a platform for intercultural dialogue in the Hellenistic East. The result of such a dialogue was a complex syncretic set of religious beliefs of ancient Palmyra.
Keywords: religious syncretism, pantheon of Palmyra gods, Bel, Baal-Shamin
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):125-138
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Semenenko CANAL STELAE OF DARIUS I IN THE CONTEXT OF THE IMPERIAL POLICY OF THE ACHAEMENID STATE
CANAL STELAE OF DARIUS I IN THE CONTEXT OF THE IMPERIAL POLICY OF THE ACHAEMENID STATE
I. O. Semenenko
Undergraduate Student Charles University in Prague 560/5, Ovocný trh, Prague 1, 116 36, Czech Republic email@example.com
The reign of Darius I was the heyday of the Achaemenid Empire. To successfully unite the entire Near East into a single state the king of Persia had to recognize local cultures and forms of political organization and to emphasize the fact that his subjects belonged to different ethnic groups, spoke different languages and had different ways of life. The integration of individual civilization centers into the general imperial trade and political system was an important goal to achieve. One of the most important activities in this concern was the (re-)digging of a canal by Darius I, which connected the Nile with the Red Sea. This canal successfully illustrates Persian policy in the subordinate territories. It ran through the dry wadis of the Eastern Desert and the Isthmus of Suez, where, long before the founding of the Achaemenid state, several different waterways existed, created by the pharaohs of the 26th, 19th and possibly 9th Dynasties. Acting within the framework of local customs and using the experience of successfully functioning administration system of Egypt, Darius I, with the use of enormous resources of his empire, for the first time in history created the phenomenon that significantly changed the map of the Red Sea trade routes for centuries. This article deals with several bilingual stelae which were installed on the promontories along the canal. Their cuneiform and hieroglyphic inscriptions glorify the construction of the canal by Darius and transmit his imperial titles in Ancient Egyptian, Old Persian, Babylonian and Elamite. The study of the motifs and texts depicted on the stelae sheds a new light on the process of (re-)digging of the canal and on the imperial policy of the Achaemenid state in the region.
Keywords: Achaemenid Empire, Darius I, Canal of the Pharaohs, Red Sea, Old Persian, cuneiform
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):113-124
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Lapushanski TEMPLE PERSONNEL AND RITUAL PRACTICE OF THE ESAGIL TEMPLE IN THE SECOND MILLENNIUM BC
TEMPLE PERSONNEL AND RITUAL PRACTICE OF THE ESAGIL TEMPLE IN THE SECOND MILLENNIUM BC
I. Yu. Lapushanski
PhD Student Belarusian State University 6, Krasnoarmeyskaya Str., Minsk, 220030, Belarus firstname.lastname@example.org
The composition of temple personnel and ritual practice of the main Babylonian temple Esagil (dedicated to the god Marduk) in the second millennium BC is insufficiently studied, a situation caused directly by the state of preservation of the relevant sources. The author examines parts of the Code of Hammurapi, administrative texts, and New Year festival fragment VAT 16435 to partially reconstruct the composition of the temple personnel (nadītu-priestesses, pašīšu-priests, and šangû-priests). The following conclusions are drawn based on the data of prayers, incantations, and Poem of the righteous sufferer (Ludlul bēl nēmeqi) concerning ritual practice in Esagil: 1. The temple was considered to be a place of healing and “liberation” (paţāru, aşû) from the “curse” (mamītu) or illness, restoration of a person’s social status; 2. Semi-divine creatures, residents of Esagil, were mediators of these processes; 3. Healing of a person was accompanied by sacrifices in the temple, made for Marduk, his divine wife Zarpanitu, and protective gods of Esagil.
Keywords: Esagil, Babylonian religion, priesthood, ritual
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):109-112
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Kukharchyk ARACHOSIA ACCORDING TO OLD PERSIAN ROYAL INSCRIPTIONS
ARACHOSIA ACCORDING TO OLD PERSIAN ROYAL INSCRIPTIONS
Yu. S. Kukharchyk
PhD Student Belarusian State University 6, Krasnoarmeyskaya Str., Minsk, 220030, Belarus email@example.com
The paper considers the position of Arachosia in the governance system of the territories captured by the Old Persian royal, based on the Old Persian royal inscriptions. The Old Persian royal inscriptions are a corpus of written sources created in the 4th–6th centuries BC. They contain the traditional list of dahyu, including a list of territories subject to the Old Persians. Harahuvatiš (Arachosia) is mentioned among of them. It is mentioned in various inscriptions of the Old Persian royal, such as DB, DPE, DNa, DSe, DSm, XPh, DSf. Harahuvatiš (Arachosia) is a vast territory in the basin of the rivers Argentab, Argostan and Ghazni, north of Gedrosia, which was inhabited by Iranian tribes. The Old Persian form of the name of this territory is the equivalent of sank. Sárasvatī-, literally means “rich in waters”, and is named so in accordance with the main river of the region. According to the geographical list of Videodata, Arachosia mentioned in the list of best countries created by Ahuramazda, thus its population probably, for the most part, adheres to the teachings of Zoroaster and perform the same rituals which are set out in the Avesta. The Behistun inscription mentions Arachosia in connection with the uprisings that swept the empire in the early years of Darius’ reign. However, it was not a separate center of the uprising and its population supported the uprising Vahyazdata, as according to the Behistun inscription, the leader of the uprising was not named and the construction “the man who was the head of the army, which Vahyazdata sent against Vivana” was used (DB III.70-71). As the inscriptions of the Achaemenid kings are often accompanied by relief figures, we can determine some of the ethnic characteristics of the inhabitants of Arahosia.
Keywords: Arachosia, Ancient Persian royal inscriptions, administration, Behistun inscription
Preislamic Near East 2021, (2):99-108
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